Perhaps the most famous compound leader was Josiah Mwangi Kariuki. During the 1952–1960 Mau Mau Uprising, in British Kenya Thomas Askwith, the official tasked with designing the British 'detention and rehabilitation' programme during the summer and autumn of 1953, termed his system the Pipeline. The number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis which is being disclosed in Prison and Detention Camps is causing some embarrassment. , The historian Robert Edgerton describes the methods used during the emergency: "If a question was not answered to the interrogator's satisfaction, the subject was beaten and kicked. Elle permet en outre la prise du plus grand camp des Mau Mau dirigé par Stanley Mathenge. , On 6 June 2013, the foreign secretary, William Hague, told parliament that the UK government had reached a settlement with the claimants. Pressure from Neighbors, fear of being ostracized, intimidation, all play their part in ensuring that as many villagers as possible swore to support militant nationalism », « a conspiracy designed to dominate first the Kikuyu tribe and then all Africans and finally to exterminate or drive out all other races and seize power in Kenya », parfois attestée et prouvée par les dires d’anciens combattants, « L’acte de naissance de ces jeunes nations est entaché par des fautes, que celles-ci correspondent à une volonté de nuire ou à une erreur de jugement », « cas de tribalisme au service de la nation », « In Mau Mau, there were no revolutionary intellectuals nor cadres. Mau Mau was a disease which had been eradicated, and must never be remembered again. John Newsinger, "Revolt and Repression in Kenya: The 'Mau Mau' Rebellion, 1952-1960," Science and Society 45 (1981): 159–185; Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1967).  According to the Kenyan Government, Mashujaa Day will be a time for Kenyans to remember and honour Mau Mau and other Kenyans who participated in the independence struggle.  Though declared a colony in 1920, the formal British colonial presence in Kenya began with a proclamation on 1 July 1895, in which Kenya was claimed as a British protectorate. , There is continuing debate about Mau Mau's and the rebellion's effects on decolonisation and on Kenya after independence. In reality, conflicts involving more than two persons usually have more than two sides, and if a resistance movement is to be successful, propaganda and politicization are essential. from Kenya's Director of Medical Services, 18 May 1954, The lack of decent sanitation in the camps meant that epidemics of diseases such as typhoid swept through them. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.  The trial itself was claimed to have featured a suborned lead defence-witness, a bribed judge, and other serious violations of the right to a fair trial. Le mbari est un terrain défriché et possédé par une parenté (allant parfois jusqu'à 2 000 individus) qui se lègue dans son intégralité à la parenté qui l’administre à travers un muramati en copropriété. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. This ethnopsychiatric analysis guided British psychological warfare, which painted Mau Mau as "an irrational force of evil, dominated by bestial impulses and influenced by world communism", and the later official study of the uprising, the Corfield Report. Of the scores of screening camps which sprang up, only fifteen were officially sanctioned by the colonial government. Fin 1956, selon l'historienne Caroline Elkins, plus de 100 000 rebelles et civils ont été tués au cours des combats ou dans les massacres qui caractérisent la répression et plus de 300 000 autres Kikuyu sont détenus dans des camps à l'intérieur desquels des tentatives pour les amener à adopter les vues politiques du gouvernement ont été entreprises, ′. Mau Mau Uprising is similar to these military conflicts: Operation Mushroom, Capture of Kimathi, Christmas Eve Battle and more. , European missionaries and native Kenyan Christians played their part by visiting camps to evangelise and encourage compliance with the colonial authorities, providing intelligence, and sometimes even assisting in interrogation. The operation began on 24 April 1954 and took two weeks, at the end of which 20,000 Mau Mau suspects had been taken to Langata, and 30,000 more had been deported to the reserves. Peuple lié à l’agriculture jusque dans ses légendes, il vit comme un profond malaise l’accaparement et la confiscation des terres par les Blancs. The vast majority of Kenyan employees' violations of labour legislation were settled with "rough justice" meted out by their employers. This article has been rated as C-Class. D’abord le mouvement Mau Mau ne s’est pas réellement éteint avec la capture de Dedan Kimathi. As many as 150,000 suspected members of the resistance movement. Castration by British troops and denying access to medical aid to the detainees were also widespread and common. Ce système de Conseil a donc tendance à casser la solidarité générationnelle originelle puisque de tels évènements n’interviennent pas au même moment dans la vie de chacun. The Hunt for Kimathi. La fin de la révolte est généralement datée de la capture de Dedan Kimathi, le général des Aberdares en octobre 1956. Over the next few days, the regiment had captured and executed 20 people suspected of being Mau Mau fighters for unknown reasons. Peu à peu on prévoit même des élections, avec un collège électoral réduit, à la suite des pressions de dirigeants syndicalistes comme Tom Mboya. John Lonsdale (1990) "Mau Maus of the Mind: Making Mau Mau and Remaking Kenya", The Journal of … The Mau Mau Uprising was an independence movement in Kenya.. Reconciliation. " In return for his services, a squatter was entitled to use some of the settler's land for cultivation and grazing. Toutefois, là encore il faut relativiser puisque la révolte a contribué au rapprochement de certaines catégories sociales, notamment en cassant l’antagonisme homme-femme (cf infra) présent dans la société Kikuyu mais aussi le clivage jeune-vieux devenu obsolète avec la destruction de l’alternance politique Kikuyu par l’indirect rule.  Kariuki also wrote that the term Mau Mau was adopted by the rebellion in order to counter what they regarded as colonial propaganda. Enfin, le Mau Mau a aussi influencé la littérature de quelques grands esprits africains comme wa Thiongo qui a largement contribué à la popularisation du thème du traître dans la littérature africaine post-coloniale comme dans A Grain of Wheat. L’alternance s’effectue au moment d’une grande cérémonie nommée l’itwika, qui a lieu à peu près tous les 25-30 ans, dans laquelle la jeune génération remplace ses aînés. Le premier entretient par ailleurs des relations avec la Land Freedom Army, un mouvement néo Mau Mau qui sévit dans les Hauts Plateaux entre 1960 et 1962, tandis que le second est plus régionaliste. Au total ce sont plus de 1 300 villages construits dès 1954 qui accentuent la pression démographique déjà trop élevée et empêchent une exploitation correcte des terres. , The psychological war became of critical importance to military and civilian leaders who tried to "emphasise that there was in effect a civil war, and that the struggle was not black versus white", attempting to isolate Mau Mau from the Kikuyu, and the Kikuyu from the rest of the colony's population and the world outside. En 1944 également, les colons blancs se sont unis dans l’Electors’ Union, un parti dont la sensibilité est proche de l’apartheid, où racisme et maintien des privilèges sont érigés en dogmes politiques.  Its representatives were so keen on aggressive action that George Erskine referred to them as "the White Mau Mau". , It is often argued that Mau Mau was suppressed as a subject for public discussion in Kenya during the periods under Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi because of the key positions and influential presence of some loyalists in government, business and other elite sectors of Kenyan society post-1963.  This neat division between loyalists and Mau Mau was a product of the conflict, rather than a cause or catalyst of it, with the violence becoming less ambiguous over time, in a similar manner to other situations.  77 surviving detainees sustained serious permanent injuries. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. , The projected costs of the Swynnerton Plan were too high for the cash-strapped colonial government, so Baring tweaked repatriation and augmented the Swynnerton Plan with plans for a massive expansion of the Pipeline coupled with a system of work camps to make use of detainee labour. In short, rewards or collective punishments such as curfews could be served much more readily after villagisation, and this quickly broke Mau Mau's passive wing. Register Military. .Â .Â . Toutefois, la révolte n’est pas seulement une succession d’actions militaires. The book and the adapted film The Cross and the Switchblade and biography Run Baby Run document the life of its most famous leader Nicky Cruz. À la fin 1953, au momentum de la révolte, les Mau Mau disposent de 1 400 armes à feu, de quoi équiper 15 % des effectifs. Malgré l’échec final de la révolte et l’affirmation de nombreux auteurs, il faut aussi considérer la contribution du mouvement à la marche vers l’indépendance dont les premiers pas se sont justement effectués durant l’état d’urgence. All native Kenyans were taken to temporary barbed-wire enclosures.  Around 1943, residents of Olenguruone Settlement radicalised the traditional practice of oathing, and extended oathing to women and children. A Parliamentary conference in January 1960 indicated that the British would accept "one personâone vote" majority rule. Mau Mau Nath Bhanjan: Administration; Pays: Inde: État ou territoire: Uttar Pradesh: District: District de Mau: Index postal: 275101 Fuseau horaire: IST Indicatif +0547 Démographie; Population: 279 060 hab.  Mau Mau racked up 1,819 murders of their fellow native Kenyans, though again this number excludes the many additional hundreds who 'disappeared', whose bodies were never found. Prisoners were questioned with the help of "slicing off ears, boring holes in eardrums, flogging until death, pouring paraffin over suspects who were then set alight, and burning eardrums with lit cigarettes". Les conditions y sont précaires, les traitements immoraux, entrainant parfois la mort de détenus. The Home Guard's reputation for cruelty in the form of terror and intimidation was well known, whereas the Mau Mau soldiers were initially respectful of women. ആഫ്രിക്കൻ രാജ്യമായ കെനിയ� It is located in the Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, India.  The British did not initially conceive of rehabilitating Mau Mau suspects through brute force and other ill-treatmentâAskwith's final plan, submitted to Baring in October 1953, was intended as "a complete blueprint for winning the war against Mau Mau using socioeconomic and civic reform". Les opérations militaires se déroulent entre 1952 et 1956, soit autant que la Première Guerre mondiale. This was coupled with a relaxation of the ban on native Kenyans growing coffee, a primary cash crop. For the next year, the Service's A.M. MacDonald would reorganise the Special Branch of the Kenya Police, promote collaboration with Special Branches in adjacent territories, and oversee coordination of all intelligence activity "to secure the intelligence Government requires". Pour contrer l’expansion du serment, on met aussi au point des cleansing ceremonies administrées par des Kikuyus eux-mêmes pour éviter la souillure du thahu.  By the end of the following summer, Lieutenant General Lathbury no longer needed Lincoln bombers for raids because of a lack of targets, and, by late 1955, Lathbury felt so sure of final victory that he reduced army forces to almost pre-Mau Mau levels. ", The Kikuyu, who lived in the Kiambu, Nyeri and Murang'a areas of what became Central Province, were one of the ethnic groups most affected by the colonial government's land expropriation and European settlement; by 1933, they had had over 109.5 square miles (284Â km2) of their potentially highly valuable land alienated.  In April 2011, lawyers for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office continued to maintain that there was no such policy. [C] By the end of World War I, squatters had become well established on European farms and plantations in Kenya, with Kikuyu squatters comprising the majority of agricultural workers on settler plantations. Not for the first time, the British instead relied on the purported insights of the ethnopsychiatrist; with Mau Mau, it fell to Dr.Â John Colin Carothers to perform the desired analysis. L’arrivée au pouvoir de Kenyatta à l’indépendance, qu’ils ont toujours soutenu et reconnu comme chef même si celui-ci a constamment condamné les moyens d’actions Mau Mau, a été une grande désillusion. Toute activité nécessite l’obtention d’une licence, comme le montre Robertson pour le cas des colporteurs et des boutiquiers. Main criticism we shall have to meet is that 'Cowan plan', Partisan questions about the Mau Mau war have.  Three battalions of the King's African Rifles were recalled from Uganda, Tanganyika and Mauritius, giving the regiment five battalions in all in Kenya, a total of 3,000 native Kenyan troops. The Mau Mau Uprising of 1952 to 1960 was an insurgency by Kenyans against British colonial rule. , The Commission reported in 1934, but its conclusions, recommendations and concessions to Kenyans were so conservative that any chance of a peaceful resolution to native Kenyan land-hunger was ended. Ensuite, la mécanisation des propriétés blanches entrainent une chute de la demande de main d’œuvre qui contribue à précariser un peu plus les travailleurs agricoles.  Explaining his decision, Mr Justice McCombe said the claimants had an "arguable case", and added: It may well be thought strange, or perhaps even dishonourable, that a legal system which will not in any circumstances admit into its proceedings evidence obtained by torture should yet refuse to entertain a claim against the Government in its own jurisdiction for that Government's allegedly negligent failure to prevent torture which it had the means to prevent. It is often assumed that in a conflict there are two sides in opposition to one another, and that a person who is not actively committed to one side must be supporting the other. Elle aura en outre coûté près de 60 millions de livres sterling à la couronne. Wikipedia. Gavaghan joined the British colonial administration in Kenya in 1944. Kenyatta described the conflict in his memoirs as a civil war rather than a rebellion. Operation Anvil was a British military operation during the Mau Mau Uprising where British toops attempted to remove Mau Mau from Nairobi and place them in Langata Camp or reserves. Most colonial magistrates appear to have been unconcerned by the illegal practice of settler-administered flogging; indeed, during the 1920s, flogging was the magisterial punishment-of-choice for native Kenyan convicts. To make matters even worse, native Kenyan workers were poorly served by colonial labour-legislation and a prejudiced legal-system. The movement utilized pre-existing social structure for political mobilization. La pression démographique entraine donc une surexploitation des sols qui perdent en productivité ainsi qu’un accroissement des conflits entre ahoi et parenté ou grands tenanciers souvent à la solde des Britanniques. This tribe was moved backwards and forwards so as to secure for the Crown areas which could be granted to Europeans. Women of the Mau movement circa 1930 . , A detainee's journey between two locations along the Pipeline could sometimes last days. Military conflicts similar to or like Mau Mau Uprising. Dans l’Afrique orientale britannique, la situation est encore plus exceptionnelle du fait de la présence de colons blancs autorisés à s’installer dès 1902. Such communication included propaganda and disinformation, which went by such names as the Kinongo Times, designed to encourage fellow detainees not to give up hope and so to minimise the number of those who confessed their oath and cooperated with camp authorities. , In 1999, a collection of former fighters calling themselves the Mau Mau Original Group announced they would attempt a Â£5Â billion claim against the UK on behalf of hundreds of thousands of Kenyans for ill-treatment they said they suffered during the rebellion, though nothing came of it. , Colonial officers also saw the second sort of works camps as a way of ensuring that any confession was legitimate and as a final opportunity to extract intelligence.  The insurgents in the highlands of the Aberdares and Mt Kenya were being supplied provisions and weapons by supporters in Nairobi via couriers. , âSpeech by Deputy Colonial Governor30 November 1946. Le 25 juin 1953 est prévue une grande offensive de sept colonnes, visant des infrastructures, finalement avortée, car certaines d’entre elles se sont repliées sous l’effet de mauvais présages témoignant de l’importance de la sorcellerie sur les mentalités des insurgés. Mau Maus was the name of a 1950s street gang in New York City. John Newsinger, "Revolt and Repression in Kenya: The 'Mau Mau' Rebellion, 1952-1960," Science and Society 45 (1981): 159–185; Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1967). Yet only one of the claimants is of that stampâMr Nzili. Harry Thuku was the first chairman, but he soon resigned. Parmi les loyalistes, on constitue des Home Guards, des milices kikuyus qui pratiquent de nombreuses exactions et font régner l’ordre et la terreur dans les populations sympathisantes de la révolte, mais qui sont aussi les premières cibles des Mau Mau. Dès ce moment sont utilisés des serments de loyauté qui vont se perpétuer jusqu'à la révolte Mau Mau. Ce sont essentiellement des Africains qui ont souffert des combats. Ainsi, en 1950 des squatters expulsés sont réinstallés dans des propriétés à Olenguruone. Mau Mau Uprising insurgency. , The colonial government used the measures brought in as part of its land expropriation and labour 'encouragement' efforts to craft the third plank of its growth strategy for its settler economy: subordinating African farming to that of the Europeans.  Despite the differences between them, there has been a continuous debate and dialogue between these traditions, leading to a great political awareness among the Kikuyu. Malgré les privations et les interdictions une classe politique kényane parvient à émerger. They often refused, even when threats of force were made, to join in the colonial "rehabilitation process" or perform manual labour or obey colonial orders. ISBN 0-435-90987-8. , In the early 1920s, though, despite the presence of 100,000 squatters and tens of thousands more wage labourers, there was still not enough native Kenyan labour available to satisfy the settlers' needs. Directed by Elwood Price. Ces chefs doivent donc composer avec les impératifs coloniaux et les pratiques de leurs peuples. Enfin, pour mieux contrôler les populations, on instaure une politique de villagisation, qui va à l’encontre de l’organisation en mbari et hameaux des Kikuyus, tout en créant des zones tampons sur les lisières des forêts et en interdisant les déplacements sans laissez-passer pour casser les réseaux de ravitaillement. C. C. Robertson, « Whose crime? , Dominated by the Kikuyu people, Meru people and Embu people, the KLFA also comprised units of Kamba and Maasai peoples who fought against the white European colonist-settlers in Kenya, the British Army, and the local Kenya Regiment (British colonists, local auxiliary militia, and pro-British Kikuyu people). The alleged member or sympathiser of Mau Mau would be interrogated in order to obtain an admission of guiltâspecifically, a confession that they had taken the Mau Mau oathâas well as for intelligence.. , Members of Mau Mau are currently recognised by the Kenyan Government as freedom-independence heroes and heroines who sacrificed their lives in order to free Kenyans from colonial rule. Mau means 'opinion,' 'unwavering,' 'to be decided,' or 'testimony' denoting 'firm strength' in Samoan. The best known European victim was Michael Ruck, aged six, who was hacked to death with pangas along with his parents, Roger and Esme, and one of the Rucks' farm workers, Muthura Nagahu, who had tried to help the family. Toutes ces observations permettent à Buijtenhuijs d’affirmer que « la colonisation a beaucoup plus empiété sur le domaine des activités masculines que sur celui des activités féminines, ce qui a eu indiscutablement une influence sur l’évolution de la révolte mau-mau ». F. Cooper, « La modernisation du colonialisme et les limites de l’empire », Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l'article intitulé «. Operation Mushroom. This earlier work cast the Mau Mau war in strictly bipolar terms, "as conflicts between anti-colonial nationalists and colonial collaborators".  Interwar infrastructure-development was also largely paid for by the indigenous population. He attributes this death toll mostly to increased malnutrition, starvation and disease from wartime conditions. , Aside from military operations against Mau Mau fighters in the forests, the British attempt to defeat the movement broadly came in two stages: the first, relatively limited in scope, came during the period in which they had still failed to accept the seriousness of the revolt; the second came afterwards.  The attack at Lari was so extreme that "African policemen who saw the bodies of the victims .  One provincial commissioner blamed child hunger on parents deliberately withholding food, saying the latter were aware of the "propaganda value of apparent malnutrition". The Mau Mau Rebellion was a militant African nationalist movement active in Kenya during the 1950s. D During the Emergency, screening was the term used by colonial authorities to mean the interrogation of a Mau Mau suspect. Category:Mau Mau Uprising | Military Wiki | Fandom. He said it included "payment of a settlement sum in respect of 5,228 claimants, as well as a gross costs sum, to the total value of Â£19.9 million. , The failure of KAU to attain any significant reforms or redress of grievances from the colonial authorities shifted the political initiative to younger and more militant figures within the native Kenyan trade union movement, among the squatters on the settler estates in the Rift Valley and in KAU branches in Nairobi and the Kikuyu districts of central province. Même si elle est composée essentiellement de Kikuyu, la révolte peut être qualifiée de « cas de tribalisme au service de la nation ».  In terms of lost acreage, the Masai and Nandi people were the biggest losers of land. the native Kenyan population of Nairobi. , In October 2012, Mr Justice McCombe granted the surviving elderly test claimants the right to sue the UK for damages. Les Kikuyus font donc face à une pénurie de terre et en 1953, 50 % d’entre eux ne possèdent pas de terre. âOne colonial officer's description of British works camps, There were originally two types of works camps envisioned by Baring: the first type were based in Kikuyu districts with the stated purpose of achieving the Swynnerton Plan; the second were punitive camps, designed for the 30,000 Mau Mau suspects who were deemed unfit to return to the reserves. The Chuka Massacre, which happened in Chuka, Kenya, was perpetrated by members of the King's African Rifles B Company in June 1953 with 20 unarmed people killed during the Mau Mau uprising. During the course of the Mau Mau legal battle in London, a large amount of what was stated to be formerly lost Foreign Office archival material was finally brought to light, while yet more was discovered to be missing. , âMemorandum to Commissioner of Prisons John 'Taxi' Lewis En effet, à cette occasion 187 dirigeants du KAU sont arrêtés dont Kenyatta. ", The Mau Mau command, contrary to the Home Guard who were stigmatised as "the running dogs of British Imperialism", were relatively well educated. Contrairement aux guérillas traditionnelles, aucune infrastructure (ponts, routes, bâtiments de l’administration, ports, etc) n’ont été visées pour entraver les communications, et la coordination des opérations demeure anecdotique.  An example of this impunity is the case of eight colonial officials accused of having prisoners tortured to death going unpunished even after their actions were reported to London.
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